Chd1 subfamily

The archetype of the Chd1 subfamily is mouse Chd1, named from the presence of ‘Chromodomain, Helicase and DNA binding’ motifs 1. The characteristic chromodomains can in principle bind diverse targets including proteins, DNA and RNA 2. It has previously been recognised that the Chd1-related proteins fall into the same 3 groupings 3, 4 which were distinguished in this analysis.

Chd1 proteins have been purified as single subunits 5, 6. However, subsequently associations between Chd1 and other proteins have been identified 7, 8. Yeast Chd1 has been implicated in transcription elongation and termination 9, 10. Further Chd1 subfamily members are the human CHD1 and CHD2 proteins and D melanogaster dChd1 which have been linked to transcriptional events 11. S pombe Chd1 subfamily member hrp1 (helicase related protein 1) has been linked with both transcription termination 9 and chromosome condensation 12, whereas hrp3 has been linked with locus-specific silencing 13.

names associated with subfamily members
CHD2, CHD-Z, hrp1, hrp3
References
1: Delmas, V., D. G. Stokes, et al. (1993). A mammalian DNA-binding protein that contains a chromodomain and an SNF2/SWI2-like helicase domain. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 90(6): 2414-8. PubMed
2: Brehm, A., K. R. Tufteland, et al. (2004). The many colours of chromodomains. Bioessays 26(2): 133-40. PubMed
3: Woodage, T., M. A. Basrai, et al. (1997). Characterization of the CHD family of proteins. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 94(21): 11472-7. PubMed
4: Tajul-Arifin, K., R. Teasdale, et al. (2003). Identification and analysis of chromodomain-containing proteins encoded in the mouse transcriptome. Genome Res 13(6B): 1416-29. PubMed
5: Tran, H. G., D. J. Steger, et al. (2000). The chromo domain protein chd1p from budding yeast is an ATP-dependent chromatin-modifying factor. Embo J 19(10): 2323-31. PubMed
6: Lusser, A., D. L. Urwin, et al. (2005). Distinct activities of CHD1 and ACF in ATP-dependent chromatin assembly. Nat Struct Mol Biol 12(2): 160-6. PubMed
7: Krogan, N. J., M. Kim, et al. (2002). RNA polymerase II elongation factors of Saccharomyces cerevisiae: a targeted proteomics approach. Mol Cell Biol 22(20): 6979-92. PubMed
8: Pray-Grant, M. G., J. A. Daniel, et al. (2005). Chd1 chromodomain links histone H3 methylation with SAGA- and SLIK-dependent acetylation. Nature 433(7024): 434-8. PubMed
9: Alen, C., N. A. Kent, et al. (2002). A role for chromatin remodeling in transcriptional termination by RNA polymerase II. Mol Cell 10(6): 1441-52. PubMed
10: Krogan, N. J., M. Kim, et al. (2003). Methylation of histone H3 by Set2 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is linked to transcriptional elongation by RNA polymerase II. Mol Cell Biol 23(12): 4207-18. PubMed
11: Kelley, D. E., D. G. Stokes, et al. (1999). CHD1 interacts with SSRP1 and depends on both its chromodomain and its ATPase/helicase-like domain for proper association with chromatin. Chromosoma 108(1): 10-25. PubMed
12: Walfridsson, J., P. Bjerling, et al. (2005). The CHD remodeling factor Hrp1 stimulates CENP-A loading to centromeres. Nucleic Acids Res 33(9): 2868-79. PubMed
13: Jae Yoo, E., Y. Kyu Jang, et al. (2002). Hrp3, a chromodomain helicase/ATPase DNA binding protein, is required for heterochromatin silencing in fission yeast. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 295(4): 970-4. PubMed